W. C. Levengood's Research
W.C. Levengood in the 1996 Paulding, OH
crop circle formation.
1954, biophysicist W.C. Levengood has authored or co-authored
a significant number of scientific and technical papers (over
50) on a wide range of subjects including Physics, Chemistry,
Biology, Biophysics, Botany, and other subjects that have appeared
in some of the most prestigious peer-reviewed, scientific journals
including Science and Nature that have also recieved numerous
citations in additional peer-reviewed, published studies. W.C.
Levengood also holds several patents for inventions and applications
related to these fields of study. This page is intended to be
an archive for W.C.Levengood's Reports and published papers regarding
his work on crop circles, as well as a resource for information
about his additional scientific studies.
W.C. Levengood published scientific papers (or citations and abstracts)
peer-reviewed published papers and patents generally are listed
with an abstract (where one has been provided) and are grouped
by subject matter content, then by year / publication date. Simply
click on the report's title to download the report in .pdf format
in a separate window.
For W.C. Levnegood's USA Crop Circle Research Reports, International
Crop Circle Research Reports, or his peer-reviewed Crop Circle
Research Papers, follow the links listed to the right.
would like to greatly thank W. C. Levengood for allowing and
giving permission to the ICCRA to scan all of his following
research reports, and for his asking us to make all these reports
freely available to the general public online.
of these links lead to an Adobe Acrobat (pdf) file and vary in
size. If you need a viewer, download Adobe Reader 9.0 here.
W.C. Levengood published scientific papers (or citations and abstracts)
regarding the physical properties of Glass (19):
of Moisture-Condensation Patterns on Glass and Crystalline Surfaces.
W. C. LEVENGOOD, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio.
of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 38 Issue 5, Pages
178 – 183, Presented at a meeting of the Ohio
Section of the Physical Society held at University
of Toledo October 9, 1954.
is research physicist, Glass Technology Section, Research Department,
Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.
A method was devised whereby moisture-condensation patterns
on glass and crystalline surfaces could be examined under the
microscope and photographed. The characteristics of the condensation
films were markedly influenced by the fracture patterns and
by the structure of the underlying surface. The technique was
applied in a detailed study of minute surface fracture patterns
and Griffith flaws. Experiments were made showing the type of
fracture patterns produced on glass by various mechanical means.
Variations in the surface structure produced by polishing, etching,
and other treatments were also studied by this method.
of Fractures in Polished Glass Surfaces. W.C. LEVENGOOD,
W. E. FOWLER, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio. Journal
of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 40 Issue 1, Pages
31 – 34, Presented at the Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting, The
American Ceramic Society, New York, N. Y., April 23, 1956
(Glass Division, No. 1)
time this work was done, the authors were, respectively, physicist
and laboratory technician, Glass Technology Section, Research
Department, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company. Mr. Fowler is now
a student in engineering physics at the University of Toledo,
A moisture-condensation technique previously described was utilized
in a study of the effect of polishing on fracture patterns in
glass surfaces. The experiments show that the apparent controversy
concerning the polishing out or "bridging over" of
surface fractures may be resolved on the basis of crack dimensions.
If the fracture width is less than 1/4 ?, it may be sealed over
by polishing, even though the depth may be 1 mm. or more. A
modified condensation chamber was devised to show in detail
the effect of aging and fracture growth in polished surfaces.
of Slow Fractures in Glass. W. C. Levengood, Research
Department, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana.
of Chemical Physics, Vol. 26, p.1184-1185 (1957)
in plate glass, originating at a cutter mark and progressing
slowly parallel to the surface, were observed under controlled
conditions. The rates of spread of such fractures, immediately
after the glass is cut and for several hours afterward, were
determined by viewing microscopically the movement of interference
fringes produced in monochromatic light. Effects of external
atmosphere, and of various included gases introduced during
melting, are described. A theory of the kinetics of slow fracture
rates is offered, which relates the fracture spreading rate
to the molecular diameter and molecular weight of the internal
gas involved. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted
by The American Institute of Physics.
of Origin Flaw Characteristics on Glass Strength. W.
C. Levengood, Research Department, Ball Brothers Research Corporation,
Muncie, Indiana. Journal
of Applied Physics 29, 820 (1958)
experiments were made which indicate two different mechanisms
of fracture. The breaking process is dependent on the widths
as well as the depth of the origin flaws. When the fracture
is of the large, open type, the reciprocal of the breaking stress
is a linear function of the depth of flaw; when the flaw is
minute, the reciprocal of the breaking stress is a linear function
of the square root of fracture depth.A pronounced strength increase
was observed in cuts formed under various liquids and aged for
various lengths of time. This increase took place about one
hour after cutting and was interpreted as a rehealing phenomenon.
Cuts made in air did not show the rapid strength increase. Cycle
fatigue tests were also made on laths of glass and it was observed
that there was an initial decrease in strength followed by an
increase. This was interpreted as rehealing effect in the minute
type of flaw. ©1958 The American Institute of Physics
Method for Developing Minute Flaw Patterns in Glass. W.
C. Levengood, Research Department, Ball Brothers Research Corporation,
Muncie, Indiana, Journal
of Applied Physics 30, 378 (1959)
A new chemical
etching technique was used to study minute flaw patterns in
glass. The etched structure disclosed that the minute defects
react to the chemical treatment in a different manner than ordinary
fissures. Flaw patterns formed at the tips of slow-moving internal
cracks were analogous to dislocation phenomena in crystals.
Oriented and repeating flaw groupings were observed in various
types of glass. These patterns are produced above the ``strain
point'' and were shown to be influenced by permanently induced
stresses and internal homogeneity. Fracturing by localized stresses
created flaw patterns radiating from the point of origin with
shapes similar in appearance to shock wave phenomena. The impact
breaking strength of glass containers was directly influenced
by the number of flaws. The flaw distribution decreased rapidly
with decreasing diameter of glass fibers. ©1959 The American
Institute of Physics
concerning delayed elastic effects in glass. Levengood,
W. C.; Vong, T. S. Journal
of the Optical Society of America, vol. 49, issue 1,
regions were formed in glass by pressing a hardened steel ball
into the surface using loads below the fracture limit. These
indented regions were found to recover with time and the process
was studied with optical interference methods. A linear relationship
was found between the logarithm of the depth of the indentation
and the logarithm of the elapsed time after the load removal.
The maximum load studied was about 5 × 105 psi. The indentation
effect could still be observed at loads around 1 × 105
Defects in Fused and Crystalline Silica. W. C. LEVENGOOD,
Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. Letters
To Nature, Nature
184, 1476 - 1477 (07 November 1959)
of fused silica (optical quality from General Electric Co.)
in the form of disks about 4 cm. diameter and 0.64 cm. thick
were treated with a modification of an etchant material previously
used for various types of soda-lime-silica glasses1. In the
modified solution the sodium ion was replaced by potassium.
The composition of the etchant was 2.0 gm. potassium fluoride
and 1.2 c.c. hydrochloric acid per 100 c.c. water. The flat
surfaces of the disks were polished, and in initial etching
treatments, it was observed that scratches and polishing defects
were made visible. There was no evidence of flaw patterns on
the polished surfaces characteristic of those found in soda-lime-silica
glasses. In order to eliminate the effect of the polishing and
surface treatments, the disks were split open and the fresh
surfaces etched; the optimum time was about 24 hrs.
of internal structure on flaw formations in commercial glasses.
W.C. Levengood, T.S. Vong. Physics
and Chemistry of Glasses: European Journal of Glass Science and
of Glass Technology, 1960, p.189
Dislocations on Glass Fracture Surfaces. W. C. LEVENGOOD,
Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. Journal
of Applied Physics 31, 1416 (1960)
a certain range of composition spiral defects were observed
on etched soda-lime-silica glasses. The patterns described spirals
of Archimedes and appeared to originate from interstitial defects
in the glass. Mutual stress influence effects were observed.
The hypothesis of an existing torque field around the interstitial
defects was useful in explaining the spiral mechanism. Application
of mechanical torque stresses produced the spiral effect. In
some cases it appeared feasible to apply stress energy relationships
developed from dislocation theories to these minute flaw patterns.A
dynamic spherical indenter technique was developed to study
structural variations in these glasses. The lengths of flaws
produced by a rolling indenter were found to be sensitive to
changes in the silica content of the glasses and less affected
by variations in the soda-lime ratio. The effects of heating
and crystallization were also studied. ©1960 The American
Institute of Physics
Mechanisms in a Noncrystalline Solid. W. C. Levengood,
Research Department, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie,
of Applied Physics 32, 2525 (1961)
It is proposed
that spiral defects originate at torque stress fields in glass
and represent variations in localized bond energy. By postulating
shear stress couples across flaw lines, extension and annihilation
of flaws from neighboring spiral sources were tentatively explained.
Distortion or movement within a spiral was indicated on samples
subjected to localized stress before etching. Experimentally
it was shown that substitution of lead and bismuth for silica
in a nonspiral glass produced a rigid, brittle network which
ultimately disclosed spirals originating at minute nuclei. Details
of structure were quantitatively studied by using the dynamic
spherical indenter. Flaw loops were also discovered which originated
at random etch pit sources and increased in diameter with applied
stress. Rows of etch pits were observed on samples stressed
in torque. The conjecture was introduced that the torsion stress
caused collapse of flaws into point defect rows. The etch pit
rows appeared to be more stable than linear flaws. The minimum
length of stability of a void derived from dislocation theory
was in agreement with experimental measurements from the point
defect rows. ©1961 The American Institute of Physics
of defect structures in glasses with ionic substitutions.
Levengood, W. C., Journal
of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 24(8): 1011-1024.
of various ionic substitutions on defect structures in glass
were investigated in soda-lime-silica systems. It is shown that
detailed measurements of flaw characteristics provide a useful
tool for investigating subtle internal energy variations in
this solid. Influences of specific ions were quantitatively
studied by determining the parameters of flaw length (F1), and
flaw number (Fn). Flaws produced on freshly broken surfaces
under controlled loading conditions, were shown to be a direct
indication of the stress response of the glass network. Relative
bond strength and rigidity or brittleness of the structures
varied with the ionic field strengths of added cations. Alkali
ions in the form of oxides, were substituted for sodium and
alkaline earth ions for calcium. Other additions and substitutional
ions were also studied in detail. In general, the changes in
flaw parameters were found to agree with theoretical predictions
of internal energy changes based on the manner in which the
ion entered the network, that is, as a lattice modifier, interstitial
or network former. In specific systems, the variations in flaw
length and flaw numbers were tentatively explained by changes
in defect concentration and free volume as the ions were substituted.
Structure of Infared Glasses. Wolfe, William L. ; Levengood,
William C. Semiannual progress rept. 1 Aug 65-1 Feb 66,
Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan
describes initial results in a program directed toward a better
understanding of the basic structure of infrared glasses. In
general, the experimental methods involved detailed studies
of changes in the internal bonding energy of the glass. Structure-sensitive
surface flaws are utilized as one means of quantitatively determining
these energy changes. An indenter device used to produce these
flaws under known loading conditions is described; and, with
working equations, it is possible to determine the critical
stress of flaw formation. The data obtained in the initial phases
of this study strongly suggest that the approach of relating
characteristics of the infrared spectra of glass systems to
variations in structure-related mechanical properties such as
the characteristics of the surface flaws provides considerable
information regarding variations in the internal bonding energies.
Variations in the flaw parameters and infrared transmission
characteristics were found to agree with theoretical predictions
of internal energy changes based on the manner in which a specific
ion entered the network of the glass, that is, as a lattice
modifier or as an interstitial or network former. Results are
presented for soda-lime-silica as well as for a calcium aluminate
Structure of Infared Glasses. Levengood, William C.,
Vong, T.S. Final Report 1 Aug 65-31 Dec 66, Institute
of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan JAN 1967
theory, designated herein as the unified glass theory, is presented.
The theory introduces the concept of order-disorder transitions
and liquid-model transformation within a glass network and was
found to be useful in elucidating and predicting structural
behavior. The degree of order and the structural characteristics
of a glass system were represented by three existing models
of liquid structure: Bernal, Stewart, and Frenkel. The unification
of these three liquid models constitutes the basis of the proposed
theory. Structure-sensitive flaws were utilized extensively
in the study to facilitate the formulation of this network hypothesis.
The unified glass theory has been applied successfully in categorizing
various investigated vitreous systems, among them a nonoxide
arsenic trisulfide glass, metaphosphate glasses, and barium
silicate infrared systems. Microyield phenomena were critically
examined, and the relationships between trace width and flaw
number parameter are discussed. A correlation was suggested
between the critical stress of defect formation and liquidus
temperatures within a field of barium silicate infrared glasses.
rupture mechanisms in vitreous systems. W. C. Levengood,
Willow Run Laboratories, Institute of Science and Technology,
The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, International
Journal of Fracture Volume 2, Number 2 / June,
1966, pgs 400-412
comparison was made between the breaking strength of fresh cleavage
surfaces on various glasses and surface flaw parameters. A direct
relationship was found between the product Nb of flaw length
and number and the mean pressure to produce breakage in localized
areas. This relationship was attributed to surface energy being
utilized in flaw creation. A theory is advanced that a localized
force causes a part of the mechanical stress to be relieved
by flaw surface energy, producing a confined region of plastic
deformation. Flaw formation in fused silica was observed to
be less extensive and, as a consequence, the structure supported
less localized force than commercial glasses before fracturing.
The fused quartz structure was modified by adding sodium and
calcium oxides; these three component glasses also disclosed
the direct relation between Nb and the breaking force. By employing
a dynamic indenter tool, quantitative flaw formation in systems
such as fused and crystalline quartz is compared with other
structures. Both quantitative and qualitative types of flaw
formation are discussed in relation to plastic flow phenomena
in vitreous networks.
relationships in vitreous infrared materials. W.C. LEVENGOOD,
T.S. VONG Final report, 1 Apr. 1967- 31 Mar. Institute
of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan
of basic strength and structure relationships in vitreous materials
revealed that a linear relationship existed between the inherent
breaking strength and the microelasticity of the three glass
systems which were examined, silicates, calcium aluminates,
and arsenic trisulfides. Using this relationship, it is possible
to explain the wide spread observed in breaking-strength data
in terms of microelasticity variability and to utilize these
linear curves to analyze subtle alterations in the basic structure
and in the surface conditions of glasses. Regular polishing
techniques as well as surface abrasion and mechanical damage
produced quite drastic changes in the microelasticity characteristics
of the glasses. The effect of melting conditions was examined
in arsenic trisulfides, and data are presented showing an increase
in strength after a melting treatment designed to reduce optical
absorption bands in the material. The importance of surface
polishing in altering microelasticity characteristics was corroborated
in the studies with arsenic trisulfides. Irtran materials were
also examined. Irtran type no. 1 disclosed a structure more
characteristic of a vitreous material than of a polycrystalline,
which indicates that under certain conditions the hot press
type of network may approach some degree of amorphism. Data
concerning the relationship between shear modulus values determined
by sound-velocity measurements and the flaw parameters in the
three basic systems are also presented.
Relationships in Vitreous Infrared Materials. Levengood,
W. C., Vong, T. S. Semiannual progress rept. 1 Apr-30
Sep 67, Institute of Science and Technology, The University of
Michigan NOV 1967
considerations of the important role of microyield in glass-structure
studies, a linear relationship was found between the breaking
strength of glass and microelasticity. This relationship disclosed
that the wide spread observed in breaking strength values within
one given glass system is due to localized variations in elasticity.
Heretofore, these large deviations in strength have been attributed
to unresolved factors such as surface contamination, handling
defects, etc. Data presented demonstrate a spatial variability
in microelasticity, the form of which determines the strength
of glass under nonuniform loading conditions. The practical
implications in terms of improving the mechanical properties
of infrared glasses are discussed. Several predictions suggested
by a previously defined unified theory of glass structure are
examined and they generally substantiate the fact that variations
in the basic glass structure are determined by surface flaw
parameters and flaw interactions. In particular, this study
confirmed that gases bound within vitreous networks can influence
mechanical strength. The surface flaw characteristics and critical
stress of flaw formation was determined both in infrared transmitting
glasses in a single crystal. The differences in the flaw parameter
values for the crystalline solid and the glasses were as predicted.
Induced radiation effects were examined in three glasses representing
the basic liquid models, and the changes in flaw characteristics
are interpreted in relation to liquid model theory.
Induced Defects in Vitreous Calcium Aluminates. W.C.
Optics, Vol. 5, Issue 12, pp. 1906-1910
flaws on vitreous calcium aluminates were investigated quantitatively
by applying controlled loading forces to fresh breakage surfaces.
Test surfaces were chemically treated to display surface flaws,
dynamically created by an indenter. The mean value of flaw length
was linearly related to the square root of the applied load
on the indenter. A critical stress of flaw formation was calculated
from the experimental data. Introduction of silica as a dopant
and vacuum melting conditions were found to influence flaw length.
Silica weakened the structure and produced a lower critical
stress of flaw formation, whereas vacuum melting resulted in
an increase in this value. An influence of internal defect concentration
was also indicated by variations in the ir transmission characteristics
of the glasses. The indicated OH- screening effects at 2.8 µ
were in agreement with the findings from the flaw studies. A
defect array on fresh breakage surfaces suggested the formation
of vacancies, and within this pattern the indenter forces produced
an interesting localized displacement effect. The magnitude
of the displacement agreed with a proposed vacancy diffusion
of Surface Structure of Glass to Residual Laminar Stresses. W.C.
LEVENGOOD, E.B. BUTLER, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, Toledo,
of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 36 Issue 8, Pages
257 - 262
authors are, respectively, research physicist and physical chemist,
Glass Technology Section, Research Department, Libbey-Owens-Ford
The force necessary to detach a glass test block from a sample
of tempered glass to which it is glued is shown to be linearly
related to the stress in the tempered glass. Fine microscopic
glue lines left on the tempered glass after detachment of the
test block are suggested as Griffith cracks by comparison of
the glue lines with the pattern made visible by treatment of
tempered samples with sodium vapor. A linear relationship between
the square root of the total crack length on a sample and the
stress in the glass is demonstrated. The linear relationship
between the square root of the crack length and stress is derived
and Surface Flaws on Glass. W.C. LEVENGOOD, Institute
of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Michigan 48107. Journal
of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 52 Issue 7, Pages
403 – 403
regarding Plant Germination and Vigour (8):
currents associated with ion mobility in stems of plants. W.C.
Journal of Botany, 1970 - National
Research Council Research Press
investigations of bioelectric currents associated with growth,
tissue metabolism, and water responses in the stems of trees
and herbaceous plants are described. This experimentation is
based on a new technique which allows the continuous monitoring
of variations in bioelectric currents related to intertissue
redox conditions. Exploratory studies indicate relationships
between variations in the redox current and turgor conditions
in plants. A correlation between the bioelectric current and
the difference in oxidation potentials between the plant and
ground electrodes is discussed.
In field studies, the current was monitored in different species
of trees over a 1-year interval. Similarities in current variations
occurred in similar species of trees and were examined in relation
to temperature, rainfall, and phenological factors. The current
level, examined in trees as a function of radial depth, disclosed
the maximum output in the cambium layer. In a study of diurnal
variations, a temporal shift in a current maximum was noted
along the tree bole.
Selection for Potential Viability. W.C. LEVENGOOD, JUDITH
BONDIE and CHI-LING CHEN, Biophysical Research Department, Sensors,
Inc. 3908 Varsity Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104. Journal
of Experimental Botany.1975; 26: 911-919
method is presented for selecting individual seeds for growth
and vigour prior to germination. The selection is based on the
measurement of an electric current originating during the initial
stage of seed imbibition. After selecting, seeds may be returned
to the quiescent state without affecting viability. Results
of both laboratory germination and field experiments demonstrate
that high germination rates, more extensive growth, higher yields,
and fewer defective plants are associated with small currents.
Seeds of low viability and high currents may be removed to upgrade
the germination and vigour. Results are presented from several
varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris and from three other plant species.
Experiments are discussed which indicate that seeds graded by
current levels possess markedly different respiration rates.
electronic analyser for evaluating seed germination and vigour.
Steere, W.C., Levengood, W.C., Bondie, J.M., Agro Sciences
Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. (USA), Seed
Science and Technology
(Netherlands) v. 9(2) p. 567-576 (1981)
currents conducted through exudate solutions from 100 individual
seeds were measured with a Model ASA-610 Seed Analyser and compared
to standard laboratory germination and certain aspects of seed
vigour. Examination of the histograms of current distribution
from 100 seeds showed a shift towards higher current ranges
as seed lot quality declined. A simple technique of data analysis
of the current levels provided a "germination prediction"
which correlated well with standard laboratory germination.
Results from various commercial lots of soybeans (Glycine max),
bushbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum)
showed that the method has broad potential usefulness as a rapid
indicator of commercial seed lot quality.
Currents and Oxidant Levels in Plant Systems: a dissertation submitted
in partial fulfillment ... for the degree of Master of Science-Forestry.
by William C. Levengood Research Dept., Sensors Inc. Ann Arbor,
Mich. 48103; University
of Michigan. School of Natural Resources. Thesis equivalent
(M.S.), University of Michigan, 1970.
current measured with a polarized electrode system in the bole
of a tree or the stem of an herbaceous plant may indicate altered
intertissue redox levels. Circumference-height ratio along the
stem is shown to be exponentially related to the current level.
This empirical relationship was used to evaluate quantitatively
the internal perturbations. Defoliation, foliage density, water
stress, girdling, and neoplastic growth change the current gradient
in the plant. Changes following defoliation and girdling strongly
suggest altered levels of oxidation products. Under water stress
both the current level and gradient are reduced and the implications
of these changes are discussed.
Transverse stem sections from a tree bole disclosed dark-coloured
proteinaceous compounds at the site of an iron cathode. These
complexes are translocated from the reaction site by ray parenchyma
and stored in the secondary xylem and pith regions. Newly formed
xylem and phloem are free of these complexes, indicating that
metabolically active tissue rapidly translocates reaction products,
preventing them from accumulating and interfering with electrode
Transport in the Testa of Germinating Seeds. W.C. LEVENGOOD,
Pinelandia Biophysical Laboratory 4853 Wolf Lake Road, P.O. Box
388, Grass Lake, Michigan 49240, U.S.A., Journal
of Experimental Botany. 36: 1053–1063.
flow produced when an electrical potential is applied to a partially
hydrated seed is drastically altered by the application of a
thermal pulse. Specific responses to thermally induced changes
in electrical activity are related to the cell wall structure
of the seed coat and its state of hydration. It is suggested
that expansion and contraction of the micropores in the cell
wall matrix provide a model based on a diffusion and dehydration
during a thermal pulse and an ion-gating effect immediately
following the pulse. Mechanical flexing produced oscillatory
behaviour in the electrical current flow through seed coat tissues
in a manner predicted by the thermal responses.
of germination of soybean seed damaged by stink bugs and in-field
weathering. Berger, D.A. (North Florida Research Education
Center, Quincy, FL); Shokes, F.M.; Herzog, D.C.; Levengood, W.C.
Proceedings - Soil
and Crop Science Society of Florida (USA) Meeting held
September 26-28, 1989, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida v. 49 p.
In Plant Cell Organelles. LEVENGOOD W.C. Bioelectrochemistry
and bioenergetics, 1991, vol. 25, no2, pp. 225-239
electrokinetics within plant cells. LEVENGOOD W.C., Pinelandia
Biophysical Lab., Grass Lake MI 49240, ETATS-UNIS. Bioelectrochemistry
and bioenergetics, 1993, vol. 32, no2, pp. 165-174 (11
Environmental Physics (11):
Influence of a Magnetic Field on Thermal Convection Patterns.
W.C. LEVENGOOD, Research Department, Libbey–Owens–Ford
Glass Company, 1701 East Broadway, Toledo 5, Ohio. Oct. 17. Nature
177, 631-632 (31 March 1956)
instability during the chemical silvering of glass produces
Bénard convection patterns in the deposited silver layer.
An unstable condition produced by cooling the silver solution
to about 10° C, pouring it over the top surface of glass
plates at 25° C. arranged horizontally, so as to produce
a layer about 3 mm. thick, gave silver patterns as shown in
Fig. 1. A very unusual and pronounced difference occurred in
the details of the shapes of the convection patterns when formed
in the presence of a magnetic field.
Effects in Vortex Rings produced with Liquids. W.C.
LEVENGOOD, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana.
181, 1680 - 1681 (14 June 1958)
the commonest examples of a vortex phenomenon may be observed
in the formation of smoke rings. Detailed studies of the structure
of smoke rings were made many years ago by R. W. Wood. Smoke
is, however, rather unsatisfactory for observation because of
rapid diffusion and the fact that the rings are easily disturbed
by air currents.
of Rupture in Droplet Layers on Heated Liquid Surfaces. W.C.
Levengood, Ball Brothers Company, Inc., Muncie, Indiana. ©1958
of Physics Teachers
Effects Under Conditions of Localized Thermal Instability.
Levengood, W.C. Astrophysical
Journal, vol. 129, p.483 03/1959
convection experiments were conducted in an attempt to explain
previously observed hydromagnetic effects in silver patterns
deposited on glass. Convective regions were produced in alcohol
and alcohol-powder mixtures by locally heating with the poles
of permanent niagnets. Optical and weight-difference techniques
were developed to compare observed differences in the conveciion
process over the pole regions of the magnet. Those phenomena
suggested electric charge effects within the liquid, and the
results werc found to agree with tho basic electrodynamics of
charges moving in a magnetic field. These force effects on charged
particles also provided an explanation for the observed differences
in the silver-deposit patterns. The earth's magnetic field was
found to have an effect on the localized convection process.
The difference over the pole regions was most pronounced when
the magnet poles were aligned in the same position as the geomagnetic
poles of the earth.
Factors and Correlation Coefficients. Barnothy MF, Levengood
1962 Aug 10;137(3528):465-467.
flare effects on living organisms confined in magnetic fields.
Levengood W.C., Shinkle W.P. Nature.
1962 Sep 8;195:967-70.
were found to influence progeny yields in the fruit fly Drosophila
melanogaster in culture bottles placed on the poles of permanent
magnets. The progeny yields varied inversely with the solar
flare activity, with the south pole progeny showing a slightly
greater variation than the north pole progeny. A small positive
correlation was found between the progeny and barometric pressure.
For control cultures (no magnetic field), on the other hand,
a large positive correlation with pressure but no correlation
with solar flares were found. It is assumed that the solar flare
effect in magnetic fields is due to ionizing particles, and
an empirical relationship including both pressure and solar
flare factors was worked out which gave more significant correlations.
The solar flare correlation also was higher for magnets oriented
east-west than for those oriented north-south.
Elastic Energy Variations in Tektites. Levengood, W.C.
of Geophysical Research, Vol. 71, p.613 01/1966, American
Observations of Yield in Thallium Bromo-Iodide. W.C.
Levengood and William L. Wolfe. Applied
Optics, Vol. 5, Issue 12, pp. 1919-192
flow has been determined quantitatively in a thallium-bromo-iodide
(KRS-5) crystal as a function of applied force and loading time.
A microinterferometric technique was employed to examine the
depth and contours of depressions formed by statically loaded
steel spheres and the elastic recovery of the material. An unusual
geometric pattern was formed around a small percentage of the
load regions, the nature of which suggested slip line formation
in the cubic crystal lattic
Constants of Germanium. Wolfe, W. L., Jenney, J. A.,
Levengood, W.C., Limperis, T., Szeles, D. M., Institute
of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan MAR
has been made of the effects of change of refractive index of
germanium on radiometric calibration; this analysis shows that
the index cannot change by more than 0.01 if 2% accuracy is
to be maintained-unless calibration procedures are used to account
for this change. Several methods of measuring index have been
investigated; as a necessary preliminary, the effects of changes
in temperature and pressure on index were evaluated. For the
usual atmospheric conditions, variations of 50 C or 50 torr
will cause changes of no more than =0.00001 of the refractive
index of air. Each of nine possible techniques has been analyzed
in terms of the precision necessary in the measurement of each
of the independent variables. Deviation techniques are discussed.
The required measurement accuracies for summarized. Transmission
measurements made on a sample submitted by the sponsor are also
described and analyz
biological effect from the 9 July 1962 high altitude nuclear test.
Levengood W.C., International
Journal of Biometeorolgy 1967 Jul;11(2):195-9.
of the 9 July 1962 high altitude nuclear test on the reproductive
responses in DROSOPHILA cultures was indicated by the occurrence
of simultaneous minimas in progeny curves. Progeny from cultures
grown in magnetic fields disclosed less deviation from a four
generation mean value than did progeny from control cultures.
It is suggested that the magnetic fields deflected a portion
of the increased 9 July radiation from the test region. Based
on limited data, the possibility exists that a protective effect
may have been transferred to first generation flies grown out
of the magnetic field.
Influencing Biomagnetic Environments During the Solar Cycle. W.C.
LEVENGOOD, University of Michigan, Institute of Science and Technology,
Ann Arbor, Nature
205, 465 - 470 (30 January 1965)
regarding Effects on Insects and Animals Due to Magnetic Fields
and Environmental Factors (13):
Factors Influencing Progeny Yields in Drosophila. W.C.
Levengood and M.P. Shinkle, Ball Brothers Research Corporation,
Muncie, Indiana, Science.
1 July 1960:Vol. 132. no. 3418, pp. 34-35.
counts in Drosophila melanogaster were found to be correlated
with barometric pressures. Addition of a sublethal chemical
to the culture produced a higher correlation coefficient, whereas
growth of the culture in an electric field reduced the correlation
well below the level of significance. The electric field appeared
to have a protective action.
Yields in Drosophila. Edwards DK, Levengood W.C., Shinkle
variations induced with a magnetic probe. Levengood W.C.,
1966 Mar 5;209(5027):1009-13.
as influenced by locally administered magnetic fields.
Levengood W.C., Biophysical
Journal 7: 297-307 (1967), Biophysical
in morphogenetic development induced in Drosophila melanogaster
pupae by exposure to a magnetic probe was shown to persist for
more than 30 generations. With succeeding inbred crossings,
an initial increase in the time of development through the embryonic
and postembryonic stages gradually approached the level found
in control cultures. As the development time decreased, a concomitant
increase occurred in the yield of progeny. The pattern of morphogenesis
suggested a condition of homeostasis operating in an oscillating
epigenetic system. The concept of a feedback control mechanism
was employed to examine details of the alterations in development
time. The data were compatible with this model and rates of
recovery from an initial perturbation were determined in several
series inbred for a large number of generations. Variations
in rate constants and mechanisms involved in the magnetic field
inhibition are discussed.
inhibition in Drosophila using dihydroxybenzoic acid isomers.
W.C. Levengood, R Damrauer - Journal
of Insect Physiology, Vol. 15, pp 633-641, 1969
of dihydroxybenzoic acid were added to a standard culture medium
of Drosophila melanogaster and their effect on development time
and progeny yield examined. Each isomer produced a distinct
level of inhibitive imluence throughout continuous inbred generations.
The degree of develop- mental perturbation from a particular
isomer was dependent on its proton- do’nating power. Details
of the alterations indicated enzyme inhibitions associated with
the reaction kinetics of oxidative processes. A simple withdrawal
of oxygen by briefly submerging pupae in water also altered
the ontogenetic cycle suggesting an analogue of the isomer effect.
Lengthened development produced by oxygen withdrawal in first-generation
pupae was transferred to succeeding inbred generations. Published
pharmacological studies in which drugs were introduced into
Drosophila medium are given an interpretation based on the findings
with the dihydroxybenzoic acid isomers.
new teratogenic agent applied to amphibian embryos. Levengood
of Embryology and Experimental Morphology 1969 Feb;21(1):23-31.
Received for publication 18 March 1968. Revision received 11 July
been demonstrated that the application of the magnetic probe
to Drosophila pupae has a pronounced influence on the pattern
ofmorphogenesis (Levengood, 1966). In addition to morphological
abnormalities, there was a retardation of development which
continued to occur without further treatment in succeeding generations.
A theoretical basis for these disturbances has been proposed
(Levengood,1967). The present study was undertaken to find out
whether comparable developmental disturbances would be produced
in vertebrates. Amphibian eggs and embryos were exposed to magnetic
probes at various stages of development. The results demonstrate
that a brief treatment of early amphibian embryos produces several
types of abnormalities, some of which are not expressed until
the climax stageof metamorphosis. The magnetic probe devices
used in these experiments have been previously described in
detail (Levengood, 1966). The probe coils contain a core with
a 1 in. section at one end prepared with a conical taper down
to a final diameter of 0•125 mm with the tip machined
method for determining circadian patterns of carbon dioxide release.
W.C. Levengood, Institute of Science and Technology, The University
of Michigan Ann Arbor, 48107 Michigan, Journal
of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and
Behavioral Physiology Volume 62, Number 2, June, 1969
infrared technique based on the continuous monitoring of a characteristic
infrared absorption band, temporal variations in the circadian
patterns of carbon dioxide release were examined in two species
of noctuid moths, the corn earworm Heliothis zea (BODDIE) and
the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH). The detailed
emission patterns were shown to be different in the two moth
species (Figs. 3, 4). Emission patterns similar to those obtained
in adults were also observed to be present in the pupal stage
of light-dark conditions was examined and in the pupal stage
the mean rate of carbon dioxide evolution was lower in those
pupae exposed to a dark chamber compared with pupae of corresponding
age and sex exposed to approximately 80 foot candles of light.
This light-dark effect was not observed in adult moths. An insect
attractant lamp emitting radiation in the blue and ultraviolet
regions of the spectrum was found to have a pronounced stimulating
influence. Over a 24 hour period of observation, the carbon
dioxide buildup was approximately two times greater from male
S. frugiperda moths exposed to the attractant lamp when compared
with control moths exposed to room light or dark chamber conditions
(Fig. 5). Alternate 24 hour exposures to the attractant lamp
and dark conditions disclosed that the moths returned to a low
level of emission following each light exposure. The attractant
lamp also altered the phasing or onset of the circadian pattern
of carbon dioxide release, however, the sequential patterns
of release remained the same.
was sponsored by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering and
Entomology Research Divisions, ARS, Beltsville, Md. Contract
No. 12-14-100-8942 (42)
Sexual Responses of Male Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
W.C. LEVENGOOD, Michigan
Academician, 1969, [Ann Arbor] Michigan
Academy of Science, Arts and Letters
wave sensing of nocturnal moths. Eldumiati II, Levengood
W.C. Biophysical Research Division, Sensors Inc, Ann Arbor, Michigan
48103, USA. Nature.
1971 Sep 24;233(5317):283-4.
of insects resistant to chemical pesticides has created a strong
need for optical traps to control populations of economically
important insects. But first it is necessary to understand their
response to electromagnetic radiation. In 1968 preliminary tests
indicated that pulsed coherent radiation of 337 µm wavelength
might be attractive to insects. We have now made a behavioural
and theoretical study of this phenomenon, using the fall army
worm (Spodoptera frugiperda), the corn earworm (Heliothis zed),
the Indian meal moth (Plodia inter-punctella) and the codling
moth (Carpocapsa pomonella).
of the Lepidopteron Sensing Mechanism: Possible Photochemical
Response. W.C. LEVENGOOD, I. I. ELDUMIATI & R. FREELING,
Biophysics Research Division, Sensors Inc., 303 W Ann Street,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. Nature
241, 545 - 547 (23 February 1973)
nature of the moth sensing problem has been demonstrated1-4.
Here we suggest that the interaction of a moth with its radiation
environment may be explained by a chemical change in metabolism
induced by the radiation. We have tested this hypothesis by
studying the temperature dependence of the behavioural response
of several moth species to a black-light source and coherent
submillimetre wave radiation.
mutations in Drosophila exposed to magnetic fields. Levengood
Journal of Biometeorolgy 1987 Sep;31(3):185-90.
frequency of XO mutations in Drosophila melanogaster was significantly
higher than normal in magnetic field exposed, immature males,
than in exposed, mature males. Mutation levels increased with
magnetic field strength. Intercellular rings of black magnetic
particles were formed in the high magnetic flux region of dorsally
exposed, early stage pupae and to a lesser degree in the abdomen
of young adult females. Orientation of minute, chromosome associated,
magnetic domains within the microenvironment of the developing
organism was believed to alter oxidative processes within maturing
X+ sperm which during fertilization were incompatible with and
destructive to an Xw chromosome in the zygote.
for Charge Density Pulses Associated with Bioelectric Fields in
Living Organisms. W.C. Levengood, J.L. Gedye, B. Chir.
Energies and Energy Medicine, 1997, The
International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy
evidence is presented for oscillating, non-ohmic conductivity
mechanisms induced in metals by living systems functioning at
normal physiological temperatures. When human hands or living
plant materials are placed in contact with metallic, charge
collector electrodes arranged in a capacitative type monitoring
system, oscillatory electrical currents consisting of what are
defined here as Charge Density Pulse (CDP) waves with amplitudes
in the 0.1 to 10 microamp range, are continuously generated
during 30 sec. to one minute test intervals and exhibit well
defined polarity orientations. Through the application of perturbation
kinetics evidence was obtained to suggest that CDP responses
are associated with charge carrier transport across cell membranes.
Envelopes of the dissipative CDP traces followed a log-time
relationship with a negative slope. The persistence of CDP oscillations
suggested metastable systems in which organized electrical pulses
propagate as soliton waves. In the case of human hand experiments
these solitons may facilitate local electroporation processes
in the epidermis. Interposed, dielectric films completely blocked
the CDP response, whereas magnetic fields significantly altered
its wave form. Aluminum and copper inserts between hand and
electrode produced systematic changes in patterns of conductivity
with characteristics somewhat analogous to Josephson junction
systems. All aspects of this study are compatible with recently
published theoretical papers proposing ideas relative to superconducting
type mechanisms in living systems.
Related to Charge Density Pulse Formation in Living Tissue.
W.C. Levengood, J. Gedye. Subtle
Energies and Energy Medicine, 2002, The
International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy
paper we discuss empirical approaches designed to elucidate
the mechanisms involved in the formation of Charge Density Pulses
(CDP) originating in living organisms. These oscillating pulses
originate intracellularly in an unstable, dissipative system
and are manifested as interfacial reactions located at the tissue-metal
electrode contact zone. In both plants and animals the characteristics
of the input energy are consistent with intracellular homeostatic
mechanisms which dissipate in accordance with a precise log-time
function. Studies with living systems support a conjecture of
CDP specificity within tissue types; showing that the most active
oscillations occur in those tissues with higher metabolic rates.
In human subjects, injury and its associated pain, produces
significant alterations in the CDP waveform, the magnitude of
which can be utilized to quantitatively determine pain levels.
Specific examples of applying CDP methods in trauma and pain
monitoring are given in Levengood and Gedye, U.S. patent No.
6,347,238 B1, issued February 12, 2002.1
application of reaction rate theory the Gibbs free energy of
activation, Ea for CDP formation in Dacus carota roots was found
to be 9.4 kcal/mole. In addition, strong support for enzymatic
control of the CDP oscillatory process was provided by the observation
that the dissipative rate constant (k-value) dropped very sharply
as the tissue temperature reached 40ûC, a critical temperature
which in most plant species is well known to produce enzymatic
deactivation and inhibition of respiration. From these enzymatic
studies as well as from data obtained in the early phases of
our work, it became quite clear that CDP pulses are composed
of charge carrier mechanisms with properties far more complex
than those observed under conditions of classical electronic
conduction. The observed non-ohmic conductivity patterns are
suggestive of the kinds of superconductivity mechanisms found
in Josephson Junction systems where charge carriers are formed
within metal-metal oxide layers.
Grinding. Levengood, William C. US Patent 2706876
Issued April 1955 Application filed on Jun
Composition and Batch Therefor. Levengood, William
C. US Patent 2773775 Issued December 1956 Application filed on
for Determining the Viability of Seeds Prior to Germination.
Levengood, William C. US Patent 3852914 Issued December
1974 Application filed on September
for producing new varieties of plants. Levengood, William
C. US Patent 5288626 Issued on February 22, 1994, Application
No. 539302 filed on 06/15/1990
for increasing the proportion of mutants in a generation in
a first plant species having a recognized and established phenotype
involves the simultaneous somatic exposure of germinal plants
of the species to contact with whole cells and associated material
of a second species of plants, and to electrophoretic conditions.
The plants of the first species are preferably in a germinal
state, such as seeds or seedlings, while the whole cells and
associated materials of the second species can be a seedling
root tip, a seedling, a tissue macerate (suspended in either
water or agar) root nodules, fruit tissue or root tissue. When
the cells of the first and second species have different membrane
potentials, the step of electrophoretic exposure can be carried
out by simply placing the cells in contact with one another.
Preferably, however, an electropotential difference such as
a constant DC voltage is disposed across the somatic cells of
the first species of the plant and the whole cells and associated
materials of the second species of plant,for example, by attaching
one of a cathode and anode to the first species of plant, and
the other of anode or cathode to the second species of plant.
and apparatus for enhancing growth characteristics of seeds using
ion-electron avalanches. Levengood, William C., Burke,
John A. US Patent 5740627 Issued on April 21, 1998, Apllication
No. 715618 filed on 09/18/1996
and apparatus for treating seeds with self-organized avalanches
of electrons between electrodes (11, 12) as a cathode and an
anode with seeds (13) between the anode and cathode or on the
anode. Apparatus circuit (200) in a box (20) provides simultaneous
DC and AC between the electrodes which creates the avalanche
of electrons which project into the seeds. The seeds must be
stored before planting. The seeds so treated have enhanced growth
and apparatus for detecting, recording and analyzing spontaneously
generated transient electric charge pulses in living organisms.
Levengood, William C., Gedye, John L. US Patent 6347238 Issued
on February 12, 2002, Application No. 453705 filed on 12/03/1999
and apparatus is provided for detecting and recording a specific
type of electric pulse induced in metal electrodes by the living
tissue of humans, other animals or plants, and by certain organic
and inorganic models of such living tissue. The purely passive
system detects the electric energy produced by the living source
as it interacts with the crystalline lattice of conductive metal
electrodes to produce a train ofoscillating pulses, the amplitude
of whose envelope decays as a linear function of log-time. Specific
aspects of these pulses can be used to study the state of the
living, or non-living, source and to detect changes in this
state over time. The results of such studies of living sources
can be interpreted, respectively, in terms of the state of health,
or disease, of the source and of changes in the state of health,
or disease, of the source, and can thus be used to recognize,
characterize and evaluate conditions of the living organism
and to quantify the effects of therapies and putative therapies.