W. C. Levengood's Research Reports

W.C. Levengood in the 1996 Paulding, OH crop circle formation.

Since 1954, biophysicist W.C. Levengood has authored or co-authored a significant number of scientific and technical papers (over 50) on a wide range of subjects including Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Biophysics, Botany, and other subjects that have appeared in some of the most prestigious peer-reviewed, scientific journals including Science and Nature that have also recieved numerous citations in additional peer-reviewed, published studies. W.C. Levengood also holds several patents for inventions and applications related to these fields of study. This page is intended to be an archive for W.C.Levengood's Reports and published papers regarding his work on crop circles, as well as a resource for information about his additional scientific studies.

Additional W.C. Levengood published scientific papers (or citations and abstracts) and patents

These peer-reviewed published papers and patents generally are listed with an abstract (where one has been provided) and are grouped by subject matter content, then by year / publication date. Simply click on the report's title to download the report in .pdf format in a separate window.

For W.C. Levnegood's USA Crop Circle Research Reports, International Crop Circle Research Reports, or his peer-reviewed Crop Circle Research Papers, follow the links listed to the right.

We would like to greatly thank W. C. Levengood for allowing and giving permission to the ICCRA to scan all of his following research reports, and for his asking us to make all these reports freely available to the general public online.

Most of these links lead to an Adobe Acrobat (pdf) file and vary in size. If you need a viewer, download Adobe Reader 9.0 here.

Additional W.C. Levengood published scientific papers (or citations and abstracts) and patents:

Research regarding the physical properties of Glass (19):

Study of Moisture-Condensation Patterns on Glass and Crystalline Surfaces. W. C. LEVENGOOD, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 38 Issue 5, Pages 178 – 183, Presented at a meeting of the Ohio Section of the Physical Society held at University of Toledo October 9, 1954.

The author is research physicist, Glass Technology Section, Research Department, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.
A method was devised whereby moisture-condensation patterns on glass and crystalline surfaces could be examined under the microscope and photographed. The characteristics of the condensation films were markedly influenced by the fracture patterns and by the structure of the underlying surface. The technique was applied in a detailed study of minute surface fracture patterns and Griffith flaws. Experiments were made showing the type of fracture patterns produced on glass by various mechanical means. Variations in the surface structure produced by polishing, etching, and other treatments were also studied by this method.

Morphology of Fractures in Polished Glass Surfaces. W.C. LEVENGOOD, W. E. FOWLER, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 40 Issue 1, Pages 31 – 34, Presented at the Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting, The American Ceramic Society, New York, N. Y., April 23, 1956 (Glass Division, No. 1)

At the time this work was done, the authors were, respectively, physicist and laboratory technician, Glass Technology Section, Research Department, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company. Mr. Fowler is now a student in engineering physics at the University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.
A moisture-condensation technique previously described was utilized in a study of the effect of polishing on fracture patterns in glass surfaces. The experiments show that the apparent controversy concerning the polishing out or "bridging over" of surface fractures may be resolved on the basis of crack dimensions. If the fracture width is less than 1/4 ?, it may be sealed over by polishing, even though the depth may be 1 mm. or more. A modified condensation chamber was devised to show in detail the effect of aging and fracture growth in polished surfaces.

Kinetics of Slow Fractures in Glass. W. C. Levengood, Research Department, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 26, p.1184-1185 (1957)

Fractures in plate glass, originating at a cutter mark and progressing slowly parallel to the surface, were observed under controlled conditions. The rates of spread of such fractures, immediately after the glass is cut and for several hours afterward, were determined by viewing microscopically the movement of interference fringes produced in monochromatic light. Effects of external atmosphere, and of various included gases introduced during melting, are described. A theory of the kinetics of slow fracture rates is offered, which relates the fracture spreading rate to the molecular diameter and molecular weight of the internal gas involved. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.

Effect of Origin Flaw Characteristics on Glass Strength. W. C. Levengood, Research Department, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. Journal of Applied Physics 29, 820 (1958)

Glass breakage experiments were made which indicate two different mechanisms of fracture. The breaking process is dependent on the widths as well as the depth of the origin flaws. When the fracture is of the large, open type, the reciprocal of the breaking stress is a linear function of the depth of flaw; when the flaw is minute, the reciprocal of the breaking stress is a linear function of the square root of fracture depth.A pronounced strength increase was observed in cuts formed under various liquids and aged for various lengths of time. This increase took place about one hour after cutting and was interpreted as a rehealing phenomenon. Cuts made in air did not show the rapid strength increase. Cycle fatigue tests were also made on laths of glass and it was observed that there was an initial decrease in strength followed by an increase. This was interpreted as rehealing effect in the minute type of flaw. ©1958 The American Institute of Physics

Experimental Method for Developing Minute Flaw Patterns in Glass. W. C. Levengood, Research Department, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana, Journal of Applied Physics 30, 378 (1959)

A new chemical etching technique was used to study minute flaw patterns in glass. The etched structure disclosed that the minute defects react to the chemical treatment in a different manner than ordinary fissures. Flaw patterns formed at the tips of slow-moving internal cracks were analogous to dislocation phenomena in crystals. Oriented and repeating flaw groupings were observed in various types of glass. These patterns are produced above the ``strain point'' and were shown to be influenced by permanently induced stresses and internal homogeneity. Fracturing by localized stresses created flaw patterns radiating from the point of origin with shapes similar in appearance to shock wave phenomena. The impact breaking strength of glass containers was directly influenced by the number of flaws. The flaw distribution decreased rapidly with decreasing diameter of glass fibers. ©1959 The American Institute of Physics

Observations concerning delayed elastic effects in glass. Levengood, W. C.; Vong, T. S. Journal of the Optical Society of America, vol. 49, issue 1, p.61 01/1959

Indentation regions were formed in glass by pressing a hardened steel ball into the surface using loads below the fracture limit. These indented regions were found to recover with time and the process was studied with optical interference methods. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of the depth of the indentation and the logarithm of the elapsed time after the load removal. The maximum load studied was about 5 × 105 psi. The indentation effect could still be observed at loads around 1 × 105 psi.

Structural Defects in Fused and Crystalline Silica. W. C. LEVENGOOD, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. Letters To Nature, Nature 184, 1476 - 1477 (07 November 1959)

SAMPLES of fused silica (optical quality from General Electric Co.) in the form of disks about 4 cm. diameter and 0.64 cm. thick were treated with a modification of an etchant material previously used for various types of soda-lime-silica glasses1. In the modified solution the sodium ion was replaced by potassium. The composition of the etchant was 2.0 gm. potassium fluoride and 1.2 c.c. hydrochloric acid per 100 c.c. water. The flat surfaces of the disks were polished, and in initial etching treatments, it was observed that scratches and polishing defects were made visible. There was no evidence of flaw patterns on the polished surfaces characteristic of those found in soda-lime-silica glasses. In order to eliminate the effect of the polishing and surface treatments, the disks were split open and the fresh surfaces etched; the optimum time was about 24 hrs.

Influence of internal structure on flaw formations in commercial glasses. W.C. Levengood, T.S. Vong. Physics and Chemistry of Glasses: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology, Society of Glass Technology, 1960, p.189

Spiral Dislocations on Glass Fracture Surfaces. W. C. LEVENGOOD, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. Journal of Applied Physics 31, 1416 (1960)

Within a certain range of composition spiral defects were observed on etched soda-lime-silica glasses. The patterns described spirals of Archimedes and appeared to originate from interstitial defects in the glass. Mutual stress influence effects were observed. The hypothesis of an existing torque field around the interstitial defects was useful in explaining the spiral mechanism. Application of mechanical torque stresses produced the spiral effect. In some cases it appeared feasible to apply stress energy relationships developed from dislocation theories to these minute flaw patterns.A dynamic spherical indenter technique was developed to study structural variations in these glasses. The lengths of flaws produced by a rolling indenter were found to be sensitive to changes in the silica content of the glasses and less affected by variations in the soda-lime ratio. The effects of heating and crystallization were also studied. ©1960 The American Institute of Physics

Defect Mechanisms in a Noncrystalline Solid. W. C. Levengood, Research Department, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana, Journal of Applied Physics 32, 2525 (1961)

It is proposed that spiral defects originate at torque stress fields in glass and represent variations in localized bond energy. By postulating shear stress couples across flaw lines, extension and annihilation of flaws from neighboring spiral sources were tentatively explained. Distortion or movement within a spiral was indicated on samples subjected to localized stress before etching. Experimentally it was shown that substitution of lead and bismuth for silica in a nonspiral glass produced a rigid, brittle network which ultimately disclosed spirals originating at minute nuclei. Details of structure were quantitatively studied by using the dynamic spherical indenter. Flaw loops were also discovered which originated at random etch pit sources and increased in diameter with applied stress. Rows of etch pits were observed on samples stressed in torque. The conjecture was introduced that the torsion stress caused collapse of flaws into point defect rows. The etch pit rows appeared to be more stable than linear flaws. The minimum length of stability of a void derived from dislocation theory was in agreement with experimental measurements from the point defect rows. ©1961 The American Institute of Physics

Systematics of defect structures in glasses with ionic substitutions. Levengood, W. C., Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 24(8): 1011-1024.

The effects of various ionic substitutions on defect structures in glass were investigated in soda-lime-silica systems. It is shown that detailed measurements of flaw characteristics provide a useful tool for investigating subtle internal energy variations in this solid. Influences of specific ions were quantitatively studied by determining the parameters of flaw length (F1), and flaw number (Fn). Flaws produced on freshly broken surfaces under controlled loading conditions, were shown to be a direct indication of the stress response of the glass network. Relative bond strength and rigidity or brittleness of the structures varied with the ionic field strengths of added cations. Alkali ions in the form of oxides, were substituted for sodium and alkaline earth ions for calcium. Other additions and substitutional ions were also studied in detail. In general, the changes in flaw parameters were found to agree with theoretical predictions of internal energy changes based on the manner in which the ion entered the network, that is, as a lattice modifier, interstitial or network former. In specific systems, the variations in flaw length and flaw numbers were tentatively explained by changes in defect concentration and free volume as the ions were substituted.

Basic Structure of Infared Glasses. Wolfe, William L. ; Levengood, William C. Semiannual progress rept. 1 Aug 65-1 Feb 66, Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan MAR 1966

This report describes initial results in a program directed toward a better understanding of the basic structure of infrared glasses. In general, the experimental methods involved detailed studies of changes in the internal bonding energy of the glass. Structure-sensitive surface flaws are utilized as one means of quantitatively determining these energy changes. An indenter device used to produce these flaws under known loading conditions is described; and, with working equations, it is possible to determine the critical stress of flaw formation. The data obtained in the initial phases of this study strongly suggest that the approach of relating characteristics of the infrared spectra of glass systems to variations in structure-related mechanical properties such as the characteristics of the surface flaws provides considerable information regarding variations in the internal bonding energies. Variations in the flaw parameters and infrared transmission characteristics were found to agree with theoretical predictions of internal energy changes based on the manner in which a specific ion entered the network of the glass, that is, as a lattice modifier or as an interstitial or network former. Results are presented for soda-lime-silica as well as for a calcium aluminate structure.

Basic Structure of Infared Glasses. Levengood, William C., Vong, T.S. Final Report 1 Aug 65-31 Dec 66, Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan JAN 1967

A phenomenological theory, designated herein as the unified glass theory, is presented. The theory introduces the concept of order-disorder transitions and liquid-model transformation within a glass network and was found to be useful in elucidating and predicting structural behavior. The degree of order and the structural characteristics of a glass system were represented by three existing models of liquid structure: Bernal, Stewart, and Frenkel. The unification of these three liquid models constitutes the basis of the proposed theory. Structure-sensitive flaws were utilized extensively in the study to facilitate the formulation of this network hypothesis. The unified glass theory has been applied successfully in categorizing various investigated vitreous systems, among them a nonoxide arsenic trisulfide glass, metaphosphate glasses, and barium silicate infrared systems. Microyield phenomena were critically examined, and the relationships between trace width and flaw number parameter are discussed. A correlation was suggested between the critical stress of defect formation and liquidus temperatures within a field of barium silicate infrared glasses.

Bond rupture mechanisms in vitreous systems. W. C. Levengood, Willow Run Laboratories, Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, International Journal of Fracture Volume 2, Number 2 / June, 1966, pgs 400-412

An experimental comparison was made between the breaking strength of fresh cleavage surfaces on various glasses and surface flaw parameters. A direct relationship was found between the product Nb of flaw length and number and the mean pressure to produce breakage in localized areas. This relationship was attributed to surface energy being utilized in flaw creation. A theory is advanced that a localized force causes a part of the mechanical stress to be relieved by flaw surface energy, producing a confined region of plastic deformation. Flaw formation in fused silica was observed to be less extensive and, as a consequence, the structure supported less localized force than commercial glasses before fracturing. The fused quartz structure was modified by adding sodium and calcium oxides; these three component glasses also disclosed the direct relation between Nb and the breaking force. By employing a dynamic indenter tool, quantitative flaw formation in systems such as fused and crystalline quartz is compared with other structures. Both quantitative and qualitative types of flaw formation are discussed in relation to plastic flow phenomena in vitreous networks.

Strength-structure relationships in vitreous infrared materials. W.C. LEVENGOOD, T.S. VONG Final report, 1 Apr. 1967- 31 Mar. Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan

Investigation of basic strength and structure relationships in vitreous materials revealed that a linear relationship existed between the inherent breaking strength and the microelasticity of the three glass systems which were examined, silicates, calcium aluminates, and arsenic trisulfides. Using this relationship, it is possible to explain the wide spread observed in breaking-strength data in terms of microelasticity variability and to utilize these linear curves to analyze subtle alterations in the basic structure and in the surface conditions of glasses. Regular polishing techniques as well as surface abrasion and mechanical damage produced quite drastic changes in the microelasticity characteristics of the glasses. The effect of melting conditions was examined in arsenic trisulfides, and data are presented showing an increase in strength after a melting treatment designed to reduce optical absorption bands in the material. The importance of surface polishing in altering microelasticity characteristics was corroborated in the studies with arsenic trisulfides. Irtran materials were also examined. Irtran type no. 1 disclosed a structure more characteristic of a vitreous material than of a polycrystalline, which indicates that under certain conditions the hot press type of network may approach some degree of amorphism. Data concerning the relationship between shear modulus values determined by sound-velocity measurements and the flaw parameters in the three basic systems are also presented.

Structural Relationships in Vitreous Infrared Materials. Levengood, W. C., Vong, T. S. Semiannual progress rept. 1 Apr-30 Sep 67, Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan NOV 1967

Based on considerations of the important role of microyield in glass-structure studies, a linear relationship was found between the breaking strength of glass and microelasticity. This relationship disclosed that the wide spread observed in breaking strength values within one given glass system is due to localized variations in elasticity. Heretofore, these large deviations in strength have been attributed to unresolved factors such as surface contamination, handling defects, etc. Data presented demonstrate a spatial variability in microelasticity, the form of which determines the strength of glass under nonuniform loading conditions. The practical implications in terms of improving the mechanical properties of infrared glasses are discussed. Several predictions suggested by a previously defined unified theory of glass structure are examined and they generally substantiate the fact that variations in the basic glass structure are determined by surface flaw parameters and flaw interactions. In particular, this study confirmed that gases bound within vitreous networks can influence mechanical strength. The surface flaw characteristics and critical stress of flaw formation was determined both in infrared transmitting glasses in a single crystal. The differences in the flaw parameter values for the crystalline solid and the glasses were as predicted. Induced radiation effects were examined in three glasses representing the basic liquid models, and the changes in flaw characteristics are interpreted in relation to liquid model theory.

Stress Induced Defects in Vitreous Calcium Aluminates. W.C. Levengood. Applied Optics, Vol. 5, Issue 12, pp. 1906-1910

Induced flaws on vitreous calcium aluminates were investigated quantitatively by applying controlled loading forces to fresh breakage surfaces. Test surfaces were chemically treated to display surface flaws, dynamically created by an indenter. The mean value of flaw length was linearly related to the square root of the applied load on the indenter. A critical stress of flaw formation was calculated from the experimental data. Introduction of silica as a dopant and vacuum melting conditions were found to influence flaw length. Silica weakened the structure and produced a lower critical stress of flaw formation, whereas vacuum melting resulted in an increase in this value. An influence of internal defect concentration was also indicated by variations in the ir transmission characteristics of the glasses. The indicated OH- screening effects at 2.8 µ were in agreement with the findings from the flaw studies. A defect array on fresh breakage surfaces suggested the formation of vacancies, and within this pattern the indenter forces produced an interesting localized displacement effect. The magnitude of the displacement agreed with a proposed vacancy diffusion mechanism.

Relationship of Surface Structure of Glass to Residual Laminar Stresses. W.C. LEVENGOOD, E.B. BUTLER, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 36 Issue 8, Pages 257 - 262

The authors are, respectively, research physicist and physical chemist, Glass Technology Section, Research Department, Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company.
The force necessary to detach a glass test block from a sample of tempered glass to which it is glued is shown to be linearly related to the stress in the tempered glass. Fine microscopic glue lines left on the tempered glass after detachment of the test block are suggested as Griffith cracks by comparison of the glue lines with the pattern made visible by treatment of tempered samples with sodium vapor. A linear relationship between the square root of the total crack length on a sample and the stress in the glass is demonstrated. The linear relationship between the square root of the crack length and stress is derived theoretically.

Dislocations and Surface Flaws on Glass. W.C. LEVENGOOD, Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48107. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Volume 52 Issue 7, Pages 403 – 403

Research regarding Plant Germination and Vigour (8):

Redox currents associated with ion mobility in stems of plants. W.C. Levengood. Canadian Journal of Botany, 1970 - National Research Council Research Press

In vivo investigations of bioelectric currents associated with growth, tissue metabolism, and water responses in the stems of trees and herbaceous plants are described. This experimentation is based on a new technique which allows the continuous monitoring of variations in bioelectric currents related to intertissue redox conditions. Exploratory studies indicate relationships between variations in the redox current and turgor conditions in plants. A correlation between the bioelectric current and the difference in oxidation potentials between the plant and ground electrodes is discussed.
In field studies, the current was monitored in different species of trees over a 1-year interval. Similarities in current variations occurred in similar species of trees and were examined in relation to temperature, rainfall, and phenological factors. The current level, examined in trees as a function of radial depth, disclosed the maximum output in the cambium layer. In a study of diurnal variations, a temporal shift in a current maximum was noted along the tree bole.

Seed Selection for Potential Viability. W.C. LEVENGOOD, JUDITH BONDIE and CHI-LING CHEN, Biophysical Research Department, Sensors, Inc. 3908 Varsity Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104. Journal of Experimental Botany.1975; 26: 911-919

A simple method is presented for selecting individual seeds for growth and vigour prior to germination. The selection is based on the measurement of an electric current originating during the initial stage of seed imbibition. After selecting, seeds may be returned to the quiescent state without affecting viability. Results of both laboratory germination and field experiments demonstrate that high germination rates, more extensive growth, higher yields, and fewer defective plants are associated with small currents. Seeds of low viability and high currents may be removed to upgrade the germination and vigour. Results are presented from several varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris and from three other plant species. Experiments are discussed which indicate that seeds graded by current levels possess markedly different respiration rates.

An electronic analyser for evaluating seed germination and vigour. Steere, W.C., Levengood, W.C., Bondie, J.M., Agro Sciences Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. (USA), Seed Science and Technology (Netherlands) v. 9(2) p. 567-576 (1981)

The electrical currents conducted through exudate solutions from 100 individual seeds were measured with a Model ASA-610 Seed Analyser and compared to standard laboratory germination and certain aspects of seed vigour. Examination of the histograms of current distribution from 100 seeds showed a shift towards higher current ranges as seed lot quality declined. A simple technique of data analysis of the current levels provided a "germination prediction" which correlated well with standard laboratory germination. Results from various commercial lots of soybeans (Glycine max), bushbeans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) showed that the method has broad potential usefulness as a rapid indicator of commercial seed lot quality.

Bioelectric Currents and Oxidant Levels in Plant Systems: a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment ... for the degree of Master of Science-Forestry. by William C. Levengood Research Dept., Sensors Inc. Ann Arbor, Mich. 48103; University of Michigan. School of Natural Resources. Thesis equivalent (M.S.), University of Michigan, 1970.

A bioelectric current measured with a polarized electrode system in the bole of a tree or the stem of an herbaceous plant may indicate altered intertissue redox levels. Circumference-height ratio along the stem is shown to be exponentially related to the current level. This empirical relationship was used to evaluate quantitatively the internal perturbations. Defoliation, foliage density, water stress, girdling, and neoplastic growth change the current gradient in the plant. Changes following defoliation and girdling strongly suggest altered levels of oxidation products. Under water stress both the current level and gradient are reduced and the implications of these changes are discussed.
Transverse stem sections from a tree bole disclosed dark-coloured proteinaceous compounds at the site of an iron cathode. These complexes are translocated from the reaction site by ray parenchyma and stored in the secondary xylem and pith regions. Newly formed xylem and phloem are free of these complexes, indicating that metabolically active tissue rapidly translocates reaction products, preventing them from accumulating and interfering with electrode oxidation reactions.

Ion Transport in the Testa of Germinating Seeds. W.C. LEVENGOOD, Pinelandia Biophysical Laboratory 4853 Wolf Lake Road, P.O. Box 388, Grass Lake, Michigan 49240, U.S.A., Journal of Experimental Botany. 36: 1053–1063.

The current flow produced when an electrical potential is applied to a partially hydrated seed is drastically altered by the application of a thermal pulse. Specific responses to thermally induced changes in electrical activity are related to the cell wall structure of the seed coat and its state of hydration. It is suggested that expansion and contraction of the micropores in the cell wall matrix provide a model based on a diffusion and dehydration during a thermal pulse and an ion-gating effect immediately following the pulse. Mechanical flexing produced oscillatory behaviour in the electrical current flow through seed coat tissues in a manner predicted by the thermal responses.

Prediction of germination of soybean seed damaged by stink bugs and in-field weathering. Berger, D.A. (North Florida Research Education Center, Quincy, FL); Shokes, F.M.; Herzog, D.C.; Levengood, W.C. Proceedings - Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida (USA) Meeting held September 26-28, 1989, St. Petersburg Beach, Florida v. 49 p. 177-180 (1990)

Electophoresis In Plant Cell Organelles. LEVENGOOD W.C. Bioelectrochemistry and bioenergetics, 1991, vol. 25, no2, pp. 225-239

Organelle electrokinetics within plant cells. LEVENGOOD W.C., Pinelandia Biophysical Lab., Grass Lake MI 49240, ETATS-UNIS. Bioelectrochemistry and bioenergetics, 1993, vol. 32, no2, pp. 165-174 (11 ref.)

Research regarding Environmental Physics (11):

Influence of a Magnetic Field on Thermal Convection Patterns. W.C. LEVENGOOD, Research Department, Libbey–Owens–Ford Glass Company, 1701 East Broadway, Toledo 5, Ohio. Oct. 17. Nature 177, 631-632 (31 March 1956)

THERMAL instability during the chemical silvering of glass produces Bénard convection patterns in the deposited silver layer. An unstable condition produced by cooling the silver solution to about 10° C, pouring it over the top surface of glass plates at 25° C. arranged horizontally, so as to produce a layer about 3 mm. thick, gave silver patterns as shown in Fig. 1. A very unusual and pronounced difference occurred in the details of the shapes of the convection patterns when formed in the presence of a magnetic field.

Instability Effects in Vortex Rings produced with Liquids. W.C. LEVENGOOD, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana. Nature 181, 1680 - 1681 (14 June 1958)

ONE of the commonest examples of a vortex phenomenon may be observed in the formation of smoke rings. Detailed studies of the structure of smoke rings were made many years ago by R. W. Wood. Smoke is, however, rather unsatisfactory for observation because of rapid diffusion and the fact that the rings are easily disturbed by air currents.

Evidence of Rupture in Droplet Layers on Heated Liquid Surfaces. W.C. Levengood, Ball Brothers Company, Inc., Muncie, Indiana. ©1958 American Association of Physics Teachers

Hydromagnetic Effects Under Conditions of Localized Thermal Instability. Levengood, W.C. Astrophysical Journal, vol. 129, p.483 03/1959

Thermal convection experiments were conducted in an attempt to explain previously observed hydromagnetic effects in silver patterns deposited on glass. Convective regions were produced in alcohol and alcohol-powder mixtures by locally heating with the poles of permanent niagnets. Optical and weight-difference techniques were developed to compare observed differences in the conveciion process over the pole regions of the magnet. Those phenomena suggested electric charge effects within the liquid, and the results werc found to agree with tho basic electrodynamics of charges moving in a magnetic field. These force effects on charged particles also provided an explanation for the observed differences in the silver-deposit patterns. The earth's magnetic field was found to have an effect on the localized convection process. The difference over the pole regions was most pronounced when the magnet poles were aligned in the same position as the geomagnetic poles of the earth.

Environmental Factors and Correlation Coefficients. Barnothy MF, Levengood W.C. Science. 1962 Aug 10;137(3528):465-467.

Solar flare effects on living organisms confined in magnetic fields. Levengood W.C., Shinkle W.P. Nature. 1962 Sep 8;195:967-70.

Solar flares were found to influence progeny yields in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in culture bottles placed on the poles of permanent magnets. The progeny yields varied inversely with the solar flare activity, with the south pole progeny showing a slightly greater variation than the north pole progeny. A small positive correlation was found between the progeny and barometric pressure. For control cultures (no magnetic field), on the other hand, a large positive correlation with pressure but no correlation with solar flares were found. It is assumed that the solar flare effect in magnetic fields is due to ionizing particles, and an empirical relationship including both pressure and solar flare factors was worked out which gave more significant correlations. The solar flare correlation also was higher for magnets oriented east-west than for those oriented north-south.

Internal Elastic Energy Variations in Tektites. Levengood, W.C. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 71, p.613 01/1966, American Geophysical Union.

Interferometric Observations of Yield in Thallium Bromo-Iodide. W.C. Levengood and William L. Wolfe. Applied Optics, Vol. 5, Issue 12, pp. 1919-192

Plastic flow has been determined quantitatively in a thallium-bromo-iodide (KRS-5) crystal as a function of applied force and loading time. A microinterferometric technique was employed to examine the depth and contours of depressions formed by statically loaded steel spheres and the elastic recovery of the material. An unusual geometric pattern was formed around a small percentage of the load regions, the nature of which suggested slip line formation in the cubic crystal lattic

Optical Constants of Germanium. Wolfe, W. L., Jenney, J. A., Levengood, W.C., Limperis, T., Szeles, D. M., Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan MAR 19

An analysis has been made of the effects of change of refractive index of germanium on radiometric calibration; this analysis shows that the index cannot change by more than 0.01 if 2% accuracy is to be maintained-unless calibration procedures are used to account for this change. Several methods of measuring index have been investigated; as a necessary preliminary, the effects of changes in temperature and pressure on index were evaluated. For the usual atmospheric conditions, variations of 50 C or 50 torr will cause changes of no more than =0.00001 of the refractive index of air. Each of nine possible techniques has been analyzed in terms of the precision necessary in the measurement of each of the independent variables. Deviation techniques are discussed. The required measurement accuracies for summarized. Transmission measurements made on a sample submitted by the sponsor are also described and analyz

Indicated biological effect from the 9 July 1962 high altitude nuclear test. Levengood W.C., International Journal of Biometeorolgy 1967 Jul;11(2):195-9.

An influence of the 9 July 1962 high altitude nuclear test on the reproductive responses in DROSOPHILA cultures was indicated by the occurrence of simultaneous minimas in progeny curves. Progeny from cultures grown in magnetic fields disclosed less deviation from a four generation mean value than did progeny from control cultures. It is suggested that the magnetic fields deflected a portion of the increased 9 July radiation from the test region. Based on limited data, the possibility exists that a protective effect may have been transferred to first generation flies grown out of the magnetic field.

Factors Influencing Biomagnetic Environments During the Solar Cycle. W.C. LEVENGOOD, University of Michigan, Institute of Science and Technology, Ann Arbor, Nature 205, 465 - 470 (30 January 1965)

Research regarding Effects on Insects and Animals Due to Magnetic Fields and Environmental Factors (13):

Environmental Factors Influencing Progeny Yields in Drosophila. W.C. Levengood and M.P. Shinkle, Ball Brothers Research Corporation, Muncie, Indiana, Science. 1 July 1960:Vol. 132. no. 3418, pp. 34-35.

Progeny counts in Drosophila melanogaster were found to be correlated with barometric pressures. Addition of a sublethal chemical to the culture produced a higher correlation coefficient, whereas growth of the culture in an electric field reduced the correlation well below the level of significance. The electric field appeared to have a protective action.

Progeny Yields in Drosophila. Edwards DK, Levengood W.C., Shinkle W.P. Science.1961 Jan 13;133(3446):115-116.

Cytogenetic variations induced with a magnetic probe. Levengood W.C., Nature. 1966 Mar 5;209(5027):1009-13.

Morphogenesis as influenced by locally administered magnetic fields. Levengood W.C., Biophysical Journal 7: 297-307 (1967), Biophysical Society.

An alteration in morphogenetic development induced in Drosophila melanogaster pupae by exposure to a magnetic probe was shown to persist for more than 30 generations. With succeeding inbred crossings, an initial increase in the time of development through the embryonic and postembryonic stages gradually approached the level found in control cultures. As the development time decreased, a concomitant increase occurred in the yield of progeny. The pattern of morphogenesis suggested a condition of homeostasis operating in an oscillating epigenetic system. The concept of a feedback control mechanism was employed to examine details of the alterations in development time. The data were compatible with this model and rates of recovery from an initial perturbation were determined in several series inbred for a large number of generations. Variations in rate constants and mechanisms involved in the magnetic field inhibition are discussed.

Developmental inhibition in Drosophila using dihydroxybenzoic acid isomers. W.C. Levengood, R Damrauer - Journal of Insect Physiology, Vol. 15, pp 633-641, 1969

Five isomers of dihydroxybenzoic acid were added to a standard culture medium of Drosophila melanogaster and their effect on development time and progeny yield examined. Each isomer produced a distinct level of inhibitive imluence throughout continuous inbred generations. The degree of develop- mental perturbation from a particular isomer was dependent on its proton- do’nating power. Details of the alterations indicated enzyme inhibitions associated with the reaction kinetics of oxidative processes. A simple withdrawal of oxygen by briefly submerging pupae in water also altered the ontogenetic cycle suggesting an analogue of the isomer effect. Lengthened development produced by oxygen withdrawal in first-generation pupae was transferred to succeeding inbred generations. Published pharmacological studies in which drugs were introduced into Drosophila medium are given an interpretation based on the findings with the dihydroxybenzoic acid isomers.

A new teratogenic agent applied to amphibian embryos. Levengood W.C., Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology 1969 Feb;21(1):23-31. Received for publication 18 March 1968. Revision received 11 July 1968

It has been demonstrated that the application of the magnetic probe to Drosophila pupae has a pronounced influence on the pattern ofmorphogenesis (Levengood, 1966). In addition to morphological abnormalities, there was a retardation of development which continued to occur without further treatment in succeeding generations. A theoretical basis for these disturbances has been proposed (Levengood,1967). The present study was undertaken to find out whether comparable developmental disturbances would be produced in vertebrates. Amphibian eggs and embryos were exposed to magnetic probes at various stages of development. The results demonstrate that a brief treatment of early amphibian embryos produces several types of abnormalities, some of which are not expressed until the climax stageof metamorphosis. The magnetic probe devices used in these experiments have been previously described in detail (Levengood, 1966). The probe coils contain a core with a 1 in. section at one end prepared with a conical taper down to a final diameter of 0•125 mm with the tip machined flat.

Infrared method for determining circadian patterns of carbon dioxide release. W.C. Levengood, Institute of Science and Technology, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, 48107 Michigan, Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology Volume 62, Number 2, June, 1969 153-16

Using an infrared technique based on the continuous monitoring of a characteristic infrared absorption band, temporal variations in the circadian patterns of carbon dioxide release were examined in two species of noctuid moths, the corn earworm Heliothis zea (BODDIE) and the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH). The detailed emission patterns were shown to be different in the two moth species (Figs. 3, 4). Emission patterns similar to those obtained in adults were also observed to be present in the pupal stage of development.

The influence of light-dark conditions was examined and in the pupal stage the mean rate of carbon dioxide evolution was lower in those pupae exposed to a dark chamber compared with pupae of corresponding age and sex exposed to approximately 80 foot candles of light. This light-dark effect was not observed in adult moths. An insect attractant lamp emitting radiation in the blue and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum was found to have a pronounced stimulating influence. Over a 24 hour period of observation, the carbon dioxide buildup was approximately two times greater from male S. frugiperda moths exposed to the attractant lamp when compared with control moths exposed to room light or dark chamber conditions (Fig. 5). Alternate 24 hour exposures to the attractant lamp and dark conditions disclosed that the moths returned to a low level of emission following each light exposure. The attractant lamp also altered the phasing or onset of the circadian pattern of carbon dioxide release, however, the sequential patterns of release remained the same.

This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering and Entomology Research Divisions, ARS, Beltsville, Md. Contract No. 12-14-100-8942 (42)

The Sexual Responses of Male Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). W.C. LEVENGOOD, Michigan Academician, 1969, [Ann Arbor] Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters

Submillimetre wave sensing of nocturnal moths. Eldumiati II, Levengood W.C. Biophysical Research Division, Sensors Inc, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103, USA. Nature. 1971 Sep 24;233(5317):283-4.

THE development of insects resistant to chemical pesticides has created a strong need for optical traps to control populations of economically important insects. But first it is necessary to understand their response to electromagnetic radiation. In 1968 preliminary tests indicated that pulsed coherent radiation of 337 µm wavelength might be attractive to insects. We have now made a behavioural and theoretical study of this phenomenon, using the fall army worm (Spodoptera frugiperda), the corn earworm (Heliothis zed), the Indian meal moth (Plodia inter-punctella) and the codling moth (Carpocapsa pomonella).

Nature of the Lepidopteron Sensing Mechanism: Possible Photochemical Response. W.C. LEVENGOOD, I. I. ELDUMIATI & R. FREELING, Biophysics Research Division, Sensors Inc., 303 W Ann Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. Nature 241, 545 - 547 (23 February 1973)

THE complex nature of the moth sensing problem has been demonstrated1-4. Here we suggest that the interaction of a moth with its radiation environment may be explained by a chemical change in metabolism induced by the radiation. We have tested this hypothesis by studying the temperature dependence of the behavioural response of several moth species to a black-light source and coherent submillimetre wave radiation.

Non-disjunction mutations in Drosophila exposed to magnetic fields. Levengood W.C., International Journal of Biometeorolgy 1987 Sep;31(3):185-90.

The frequency of XO mutations in Drosophila melanogaster was significantly higher than normal in magnetic field exposed, immature males, than in exposed, mature males. Mutation levels increased with magnetic field strength. Intercellular rings of black magnetic particles were formed in the high magnetic flux region of dorsally exposed, early stage pupae and to a lesser degree in the abdomen of young adult females. Orientation of minute, chromosome associated, magnetic domains within the microenvironment of the developing organism was believed to alter oxidative processes within maturing X+ sperm which during fertilization were incompatible with and destructive to an Xw chromosome in the zygote.

Evidence for Charge Density Pulses Associated with Bioelectric Fields in Living Organisms. W.C. Levengood, J.L. Gedye, B. Chir. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 1997, The International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine.

Empirical evidence is presented for oscillating, non-ohmic conductivity mechanisms induced in metals by living systems functioning at normal physiological temperatures. When human hands or living plant materials are placed in contact with metallic, charge collector electrodes arranged in a capacitative type monitoring system, oscillatory electrical currents consisting of what are defined here as Charge Density Pulse (CDP) waves with amplitudes in the 0.1 to 10 microamp range, are continuously generated during 30 sec. to one minute test intervals and exhibit well defined polarity orientations. Through the application of perturbation kinetics evidence was obtained to suggest that CDP responses are associated with charge carrier transport across cell membranes. Envelopes of the dissipative CDP traces followed a log-time relationship with a negative slope. The persistence of CDP oscillations suggested metastable systems in which organized electrical pulses propagate as soliton waves. In the case of human hand experiments these solitons may facilitate local electroporation processes in the epidermis. Interposed, dielectric films completely blocked the CDP response, whereas magnetic fields significantly altered its wave form. Aluminum and copper inserts between hand and electrode produced systematic changes in patterns of conductivity with characteristics somewhat analogous to Josephson junction systems. All aspects of this study are compatible with recently published theoretical papers proposing ideas relative to superconducting type mechanisms in living systems.

Mechanisms Related to Charge Density Pulse Formation in Living Tissue. W.C. Levengood, J. Gedye. Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine, 2002, The International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine.

In this paper we discuss empirical approaches designed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the formation of Charge Density Pulses (CDP) originating in living organisms. These oscillating pulses originate intracellularly in an unstable, dissipative system and are manifested as interfacial reactions located at the tissue-metal electrode contact zone. In both plants and animals the characteristics of the input energy are consistent with intracellular homeostatic mechanisms which dissipate in accordance with a precise log-time function. Studies with living systems support a conjecture of CDP specificity within tissue types; showing that the most active oscillations occur in those tissues with higher metabolic rates. In human subjects, injury and its associated pain, produces significant alterations in the CDP waveform, the magnitude of which can be utilized to quantitatively determine pain levels. Specific examples of applying CDP methods in trauma and pain monitoring are given in Levengood and Gedye, U.S. patent No. 6,347,238 B1, issued February 12, 2002.1

From the application of reaction rate theory the Gibbs free energy of activation, Ea for CDP formation in Dacus carota roots was found to be 9.4 kcal/mole. In addition, strong support for enzymatic control of the CDP oscillatory process was provided by the observation that the dissipative rate constant (k-value) dropped very sharply as the tissue temperature reached 40ûC, a critical temperature which in most plant species is well known to produce enzymatic deactivation and inhibition of respiration. From these enzymatic studies as well as from data obtained in the early phases of our work, it became quite clear that CDP pulses are composed of charge carrier mechanisms with properties far more complex than those observed under conditions of classical electronic conduction. The observed non-ohmic conductivity patterns are suggestive of the kinds of superconductivity mechanisms found in Josephson Junction systems where charge carriers are formed within metal-metal oxide layers.

U.S. Patents:

Glass Grinding. Levengood, William C. US Patent 2706876 Issued April 1955 Application filed on Jun 28, 1954

Glass Composition and Batch Therefor. Levengood, William C. US Patent 2773775 Issued December 1956 Application filed on December 21, 1953

Method for Determining the Viability of Seeds Prior to Germination. Levengood, William C. US Patent 3852914 Issued December 1974 Application filed on September 1, 1972

Method for producing new varieties of plants. Levengood, William C. US Patent 5288626 Issued on February 22, 1994, Application No. 539302 filed on 06/15/1990

A method for increasing the proportion of mutants in a generation in a first plant species having a recognized and established phenotype involves the simultaneous somatic exposure of germinal plants of the species to contact with whole cells and associated material of a second species of plants, and to electrophoretic conditions. The plants of the first species are preferably in a germinal state, such as seeds or seedlings, while the whole cells and associated materials of the second species can be a seedling root tip, a seedling, a tissue macerate (suspended in either water or agar) root nodules, fruit tissue or root tissue. When the cells of the first and second species have different membrane potentials, the step of electrophoretic exposure can be carried out by simply placing the cells in contact with one another. Preferably, however, an electropotential difference such as a constant DC voltage is disposed across the somatic cells of the first species of the plant and the whole cells and associated materials of the second species of plant,for example, by attaching one of a cathode and anode to the first species of plant, and the other of anode or cathode to the second species of plant.

Method and apparatus for enhancing growth characteristics of seeds using ion-electron avalanches. Levengood, William C., Burke, John A. US Patent 5740627 Issued on April 21, 1998, Apllication No. 715618 filed on 09/18/1996

A method and apparatus for treating seeds with self-organized avalanches of electrons between electrodes (11, 12) as a cathode and an anode with seeds (13) between the anode and cathode or on the anode. Apparatus circuit (200) in a box (20) provides simultaneous DC and AC between the electrodes which creates the avalanche of electrons which project into the seeds. The seeds must be stored before planting. The seeds so treated have enhanced growth characteristics.

Method and apparatus for detecting, recording and analyzing spontaneously generated transient electric charge pulses in living organisms. Levengood, William C., Gedye, John L. US Patent 6347238 Issued on February 12, 2002, Application No. 453705 filed on 12/03/1999

A method and apparatus is provided for detecting and recording a specific type of electric pulse induced in metal electrodes by the living tissue of humans, other animals or plants, and by certain organic and inorganic models of such living tissue. The purely passive system detects the electric energy produced by the living source as it interacts with the crystalline lattice of conductive metal electrodes to produce a train ofoscillating pulses, the amplitude of whose envelope decays as a linear function of log-time. Specific aspects of these pulses can be used to study the state of the living, or non-living, source and to detect changes in this state over time. The results of such studies of living sources can be interpreted, respectively, in terms of the state of health, or disease, of the source and of changes in the state of health, or disease, of the source, and can thus be used to recognize, characterize and evaluate conditions of the living organism and to quantify the effects of therapies and putative therapies.



W.C. Levengood's USA Crop Circle Research Reports

W.C. Levengood's International Crop Circle Research Reports

W.C. Levengood's Published Crop Circle Research Papers

W.C. Levengood's Additional Published Scientific Papers and Patents


Page last updated on September 9, 2008

© 2008 ICCRA - Jeffrey & Delsey Wilson.