W. C. Levengood's Research
W.C. Levengood in the 1996 Paulding, OH
crop circle formation.
1954, biophysicist W.C. Levengood has authored or co-authored
a significant number of scientific and technical papers (over
50) on a wide range of subjects including Physics, Chemistry,
Biology, Biophysics, Botany, and other subjects that have appeared
in some of the most prestigious peer-reviewed, scientific journals
including Science and Nature that have also recieved numerous
citations in additional peer-reviewed, published studies. W.C.
Levengood also holds several patents for inventions and applications
related to these fields of study. This page is intended to be
an archive for W.C.Levengood's Reports and published papers regarding
his work on crop circles, as well as a resource for information
about his additional scientific studies.
Levengood's Published Research Papers from Crop Circle Formations
reports are arranged by type, then by state, and finally by year
/ publication date -- USA research reports are listed below, Canadian
and European research reports are listed to the right.
would like to greatly thank W. C. Levengood for allowing and
giving permission to the ICCRA to scan all of his following
research reports, and for his asking us to make all these reports
freely available to the general public online.
would also like to send a huge thank you to ICCRA Members Chuck
Leitzau, Gene Thomas, and Jeffrey Wilson for color-copying the
reports, and to
Gene Thomas for scanning in all these documents. Those
on dial-up will be happy to know that Jeffrey Wilson has condensed
the files sizes!
of these links lead to an Adobe Acrobat (pdf) file and vary in
size. If you need a viewer, download Adobe Reader 9.0 here.
Published Scientific Papers on Crop Circles
Anomalies in Crop Formation Plants. W.C.
Levengood, Pinelandia Biophysical Laboratory. P.O. Box 388. Grass
Lake, MI 49240, USA. Physiologia Plantarum Vol. 92, Issue
2 Pages 356 - 363, Received 24 March, 1994; revised 25 May,
formations consist of geometrically organized regions ranging
from 2 to 80 m diameter, in which the plants (primarily grain
crops) are flattened in a horizontal position. Plants from crop
formations display anatomical alterations which cannot be accounted
for by assuming the formations are hoaxes. Near the soil surface
the curved stems often form complex swirls with 'vortex' type
patterns. In the present paper, evidence is presented which
indicates that structural and cellular alterations take place
in plants exposed within the confines of the 'circle' type formations,
differences which were determined to be statistically significant
when compared with control plants taken outside the formations.
These transformations were manifested at the macroscopic-level
as abnormal nodal swelling, gross malformations during embryogenesis.
and charred epidermal tissue. Significant changes in seed germination
and development were found, and at the microscopic level differences
were observed in cell wall pit structures. Affected plants also
have characteristics suggesting the involvement of transient
Meteoric Iron Associated with a Crop Formation. W.C.
Levengood, John A. Burke. Journal
of Scientific Exploration, Vol 9, No. 2, pp. 191-199, 1995
the unusual discovery of a natural iron "glaze" composed
of fused particles of meteoritic origin, concentrated entirely
within a crop formation in England, appearing shortly after
the intense Perseid meteor shower in August. 1993. Physical
and chemical characteristics as well as spatial distributions
indicated reheating to a semi-molten state at the time of crop
impact. suggesting involvement with an ion plasma vortex, a
mechanism pieviously considered the chief candidate in scientific
investigations of crop formations. Abnormalities in seedling
growth was also consistent with the unusual responses of seeds
taken from numerous crop formations.
Of Energies In World Wide Crop Formations. W.C.
Levengood, N.P. Talbott. Physiologia
Plantarum Volume 105, Number 4, April 1999, pp. 615-624 (10)
reported here lend further support to a decade of research which
suggests that over 95% of worldwide crop formations involve
organized ion plasma vortices that deliver lower atmosphere
energy components of sufficient magnitude to produce significant
bending, expansion and the formation of unique expulsion cavities
in plant stem pulvini, as well as significant changes in seedling
development. Here we demonstrated that, in a number of formations,
quantitative node alterations can be directly related to fundamental
concepts of electromagnetic energy absorption through the atmosphere.
Also, in a detailed field study of simulated crop formations,
we show that over-fertilization or gravitropism cannot account
for observed physiological alterations. In addition, we demonstrate
that details of flattened, intertwined crop patterns can be
described by the application of fluid dynamic principles governing
the interaction of rectilinearly moving vortex pairs.
Papers and Reports on Crop Circles (unpublished)
Levengood's USA Crop Circle Research Reports
Levengood's International Crop Circle Research Reports
Levengood's Published Crop Circle Research Papers
Levengood's Additional Published Scientific
Papers and Patents