W. C. Levengood's Research Reports

W.C. Levengood in the 1996 Paulding, OH crop circle formation.

Since 1954, biophysicist W.C. Levengood has authored or co-authored a significant number of scientific and technical papers (over 50) on a wide range of subjects including Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Biophysics, Botany, and other subjects that have appeared in some of the most prestigious peer-reviewed, scientific journals including Science and Nature that have also recieved numerous citations in additional peer-reviewed, published studies. W.C. Levengood also holds several patents for inventions and applications related to these fields of study. This page is intended to be an archive for W.C.Levengood's Reports and published papers regarding his work on crop circles, as well as a resource for information about his additional scientific studies.

W.C. Levengood's Published Research Papers from Crop Circle Formations

These reports are arranged by type, then by state, and finally by year / publication date -- USA research reports are listed below, Canadian and European research reports are listed to the right.

We would like to greatly thank W. C. Levengood for allowing and giving permission to the ICCRA to scan all of his following research reports, and for his asking us to make all these reports freely available to the general public online.

We would also like to send a huge thank you to ICCRA Members Chuck Leitzau, Gene Thomas, and Jeffrey Wilson for color-copying the reports, and to Gene Thomas for scanning in all these documents. Those on dial-up will be happy to know that Jeffrey Wilson has condensed the files sizes!

Most of these links lead to an Adobe Acrobat (pdf) file and vary in size. If you need a viewer, download Adobe Reader 9.0 here.

Peer-Reviewed, Published Scientific Papers on Crop Circles

(1994) Anatomical Anomalies in Crop Formation Plants. W.C. Levengood, Pinelandia Biophysical Laboratory. P.O. Box 388. Grass Lake, MI 49240, USA. Physiologia Plantarum Vol. 92, Issue 2 Pages 356 - 363, Received 24 March, 1994; revised 25 May, 1994.

Crop formations consist of geometrically organized regions ranging from 2 to 80 m diameter, in which the plants (primarily grain crops) are flattened in a horizontal position. Plants from crop formations display anatomical alterations which cannot be accounted for by assuming the formations are hoaxes. Near the soil surface the curved stems often form complex swirls with 'vortex' type patterns. In the present paper, evidence is presented which indicates that structural and cellular alterations take place in plants exposed within the confines of the 'circle' type formations, differences which were determined to be statistically significant when compared with control plants taken outside the formations. These transformations were manifested at the macroscopic-level as abnormal nodal swelling, gross malformations during embryogenesis. and charred epidermal tissue. Significant changes in seed germination and development were found, and at the microscopic level differences were observed in cell wall pit structures. Affected plants also have characteristics suggesting the involvement of transient high temperatures.

(1995) Semi-Molten Meteoric Iron Associated with a Crop Formation. W.C. Levengood, John A. Burke. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol 9, No. 2, pp. 191-199, 1995

We report the unusual discovery of a natural iron "glaze" composed of fused particles of meteoritic origin, concentrated entirely within a crop formation in England, appearing shortly after the intense Perseid meteor shower in August. 1993. Physical and chemical characteristics as well as spatial distributions indicated reheating to a semi-molten state at the time of crop impact. suggesting involvement with an ion plasma vortex, a mechanism pieviously considered the chief candidate in scientific investigations of crop formations. Abnormalities in seedling growth was also consistent with the unusual responses of seeds taken from numerous crop formations.

(1999) Dispersion Of Energies In World Wide Crop Formations. W.C. Levengood, N.P. Talbott. Physiologia Plantarum Volume 105, Number 4, April 1999, pp. 615-624 (10)

The findings reported here lend further support to a decade of research which suggests that over 95% of worldwide crop formations involve organized ion plasma vortices that deliver lower atmosphere energy components of sufficient magnitude to produce significant bending, expansion and the formation of unique expulsion cavities in plant stem pulvini, as well as significant changes in seedling development. Here we demonstrated that, in a number of formations, quantitative node alterations can be directly related to fundamental concepts of electromagnetic energy absorption through the atmosphere. Also, in a detailed field study of simulated crop formations, we show that over-fertilization or gravitropism cannot account for observed physiological alterations. In addition, we demonstrate that details of flattened, intertwined crop patterns can be described by the application of fluid dynamic principles governing the interaction of rectilinearly moving vortex pairs.

Misc. Papers and Reports on Crop Circles (unpublished)



W.C. Levengood's USA Crop Circle Research Reports

W.C. Levengood's International Crop Circle Research Reports

W.C. Levengood's Published Crop Circle Research Papers

W.C. Levengood's Additional Published Scientific Papers and Patents

Page last updated on September 9, 2008

© 2008 ICCRA - Jeffrey & Delsey Wilson.